Ethiopian Girls: Culture and Recreation!
Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia has nine regional states and the Somali regional state is the second country after the Oromia region. It is bordered to the north of Djibouti, Somalia, eastern and north-eastern Kenya, southern Ethiopia, and within the boundaries of the Oromia region in the west and north-west Russia. Somali Region is administratively divided into nine administrative provinces, 52 districts, and has received a total population size is 4, 439 147, the 2009 official census.
According to the Regional Office of Education (BOE) in Jigjiga, the total number of students enrolled in elementary and middle school 716,812 (523,105 boys and 193 girls 707) to attend classes in the first year eighth year. Combined with a range of formal and non formal primary and middle schools in the region indicated in 1223 schools.
The region is the least developed and has a chronic food shortage, and in the past because of climate change in the region has experienced recurrent drought with an unprecedented scale, which required a very large number of livestock in a region which is predominantly pastoral 80%. Farmers whose holdings are mainly rain has also been greatly affected by the drought, which led directly to the crop failure. The result was an increase in cases of malnutrition throughout the region, and the effect has many families who have lost their livestock in poverty and the poverty line below.
There are a myriad of mixed problems in the region due to poor infrastructure and appropriate social infrastructure, combined with the presence of both natural and man, and in the absence of rehabilitation programs and recovery, they This led to reduced resistance to drought and floods.
Given all the above conditions and the difficulties of pastoral Somali families living in rural areas of the state of the Somali region have not had the opportunity to enroll their children in schools due to absence and lack of schools in rural areas. Most schools are built and are found mainly in urban areas, so rural children away from schools.
In addition, many parents and families are not aware of the importance of education, the illiteracy rate in Ethiopia is 64%. The majority of pastoralist households prefer their children to the care of animals while girls stay home to wash the dishes, linens and cooking for the whole family, other parents see their children as a helping hand to generate additional income for families.
According to the teacher in the area of enrollment and attendance is very low during the two seasons of drought lowest rates in the year the students were extremely high during periods of drought, as children do not have enough to eat at home end of school. Many move with their families in the interior in search of better pasture and water, and above all never to return to school.
Ministry of Education (MOE) and the World Organization programmed jointly launched an initiative to increase school attendance rate of children of pastoralists in the Somali region of Ethiopia in the 2000s. By investing in human capital through school meals, food for education and to take home for girls, WFP to break the cycle of poverty, reducing malnutrition and education of girls with long-term plan eradicate the pest and the ancient tradition of female genital mutilation / cutting (FGM) is widespread in the region than any other Somali Regional State.
At least minimize the dangers of natural and man-made education, particularly the legalization of the presence, in order to minimize drop-outs, to promote quality education and nutritional status of students at the school level, the Ethiopian Government and WFP agreed that the school feeding program could be an important right of intervention in Somalia.
In this story, WFP and MOE jointly approved the start of the program of the child / FFE in the region. Consequently, it was in 2000 when the program was introduced in the region as a pilot in 10 selected kebeles of food shortages Jigjiga area. After delivery of meals on site and distribution of oil to oil the Girls Initiative (GIP) in a house to take rations, the program was evaluated and found successful performance. For example, it was found that the enrollment of eligible schools have been a year rose 5% on average for each group of male and female. In this context, it was extended to other schools in areas Jigjiga and Shinile. Finally, the program included 82 schools in six areas of the region (Jigjiga, Shinile, Degahbour, Lebanon, Afder and good). Beginning of the program in areas helped communities understand the benefit of the program and applications for creating a program woredas and kebele flooded BoE.
In order to find solutions to the mounting complaints of the communities, the Bank of England has led WFP to extend schools CHILD / FFE since the program began in the region to which WFP has finally managed to save and mobilize resources (funds) to multiple recipients in the program.
Then, in response to inquiries about the expansion of the program, WFP contacted the Office of Education in Somalia officially send the application to extend the program through the Ministry of Education for approval, the BoE asked an additional 222 schools to be included in the program with all students to 36,297, representing the 52 woredas in the region, which was approved by the Ministry of Education and WFP.
The current number of beneficiaries will be approved the total number of program beneficiaries in the Somali region 81785. However, according to the results of the assessment missions to all nine areas of the region, total enrollment in schools reported an estimated 50,148 to the exclusion of the eight schools in the woreda and Ferfer Mustahil and 2 schools in Gode woreda Gode zone. The result of the assessment indicates that the real figure was 28% more effective than expected.
Rations for girls and constant awareness campaigns conducted by WFP in the Somali region of Ethiopia has begun to bear fruit as more parents take their daughters to school, due in part to incentives offered by WFP for girls to have rations of vegetable oil if they continue attending classes at local schools and also by the dynamic and sustained campaign WFPS on the importance of education, parents understand that educating a girl is an investment for their future and your family.
School feeding is a great theater to fight the old tradition of female genital mutilation (FGM), the education of girls in the community is to break the cycle of FGM as educated mothers are more aware of the adverse effects of FGM and are less likely to repeat the test cutting on their daughters.
The long term goal of the program is to reduce the illiteracy of Somali pastoralists. In Ethiopia, the entire adult literacy was 36% during the years 2003 to 2008, according to UNICEF statistics. School lunch programs WFP work towards achieving several Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The ProgrammeE directly addresses the goal of halving hunger and achieving universal primary education by 2015 and increasing the number of schools under the School Feeding Programme for the Somali region which increased by 222 for the current year will go a long way to train closer to the thousands of school children who could not go to school early because of poverty and hunger.
In addition to increasing enrollment of girls in local schools, food compartment also reduce poverty and disease by proving vital food, school feeding as a safety net for poor families, and also keep children in the school, studies show that it is harder for children to learn without adequate food supply.
Poor families are often forced to pastoral forced to choose between sending their children to school or to graze their camels and cattle, and a daily school meal is a strong incentive to send their children, especially girls in school and keep them there.
The average participation of schools was 91.5% in 2009, which was above the target of 90% of WFP. The national average dropout rate is 11.25% for girls and 12.26% for men compared with 9% of girls and 11% of children in schools supported
Implementation of the World Food Programme “essential package” activities in 2007 and is ongoing in more than 100 schools with the support of the school feeding program WFPS. The basic package consists of activities such as training, deworming, school gardens and nutrition and health education.
With an increasing number of girls enrolled in local elementary schools, which are the beneficiaries of school feeding program WFPS, pastoral girls are assured of free education and a solid future. According to many stakeholders in education in Ethiopia, school feeding is a crucial tool in achieving the Millennium Development Goals of the United Nations and the government sector in Ethiopia education plan two more goals in more than primary education and promoting gender equality.